NEORV32 - Software Framework Documentation
dhry.h
1/*
2 ****************************************************************************
3 *
4 * "DHRYSTONE" Benchmark Program
5 * -----------------------------
6 *
7 * Version: C, Version 2.1
8 *
9 * File: dhry.h (part 1 of 3)
10 *
11 * Date: May 25, 1988
12 *
13 * Author: Reinhold P. Weicker
14 * Siemens AG, E STE 35
15 * Postfach 3240
16 * 8520 Erlangen
17 * Germany (West)
18 * Phone: [xxx-49]-9131-7-20330
19 * (8-17 Central European Time)
20 * Usenet: ..!mcvax!unido!estevax!weicker
21 *
22 * Original Version (in Ada) published in
23 * "Communications of the ACM" vol. 27., no. 10 (Oct. 1984),
24 * pp. 1013 - 1030, together with the statistics
25 * on which the distribution of statements etc. is based.
26 *
27 * In this C version, the following C library functions are used:
28 * - strcpy, strcmp (inside the measurement loop)
29 * - printf, scanf (outside the measurement loop)
30 * In addition, Berkeley UNIX system calls "times ()" or "time ()"
31 * are used for execution time measurement. For measurements
32 * on other systems, these calls have to be changed.
33 *
34 * Collection of Results:
35 * Reinhold Weicker (address see above) and
36 *
37 * Rick Richardson
38 * PC Research. Inc.
39 * 94 Apple Orchard Drive
40 * Tinton Falls, NJ 07724
41 * Phone: (201) 389-8963 (9-17 EST)
42 * Usenet: ...!uunet!pcrat!rick
43 *
44 * Please send results to Rick Richardson and/or Reinhold Weicker.
45 * Complete information should be given on hardware and software used.
46 * Hardware information includes: Machine type, CPU, type and size
47 * of caches; for microprocessors: clock frequency, memory speed
48 * (number of wait states).
49 * Software information includes: Compiler (and runtime library)
50 * manufacturer and version, compilation switches, OS version.
51 * The Operating System version may give an indication about the
52 * compiler; Dhrystone itself performs no OS calls in the measurement loop.
53 *
54 * The complete output generated by the program should be mailed
55 * such that at least some checks for correctness can be made.
56 *
57 ***************************************************************************
58 *
59 * History: This version C/2.1 has been made for two reasons:
60 *
61 * 1) There is an obvious need for a common C version of
62 * Dhrystone, since C is at present the most popular system
63 * programming language for the class of processors
64 * (microcomputers, minicomputers) where Dhrystone is used most.
65 * There should be, as far as possible, only one C version of
66 * Dhrystone such that results can be compared without
67 * restrictions. In the past, the C versions distributed
68 * by Rick Richardson (Version 1.1) and by Reinhold Weicker
69 * had small (though not significant) differences.
70 *
71 * 2) As far as it is possible without changes to the Dhrystone
72 * statistics, optimizing compilers should be prevented from
73 * removing significant statements.
74 *
75 * This C version has been developed in cooperation with
76 * Rick Richardson (Tinton Falls, NJ), it incorporates many
77 * ideas from the "Version 1.1" distributed previously by
78 * him over the UNIX network Usenet.
79 * I also thank Chaim Benedelac (National Semiconductor),
80 * David Ditzel (SUN), Earl Killian and John Mashey (MIPS),
81 * Alan Smith and Rafael Saavedra-Barrera (UC at Berkeley)
82 * for their help with comments on earlier versions of the
83 * benchmark.
84 *
85 * Changes: In the initialization part, this version follows mostly
86 * Rick Richardson's version distributed via Usenet, not the
87 * version distributed earlier via floppy disk by Reinhold Weicker.
88 * As a concession to older compilers, names have been made
89 * unique within the first 8 characters.
90 * Inside the measurement loop, this version follows the
91 * version previously distributed by Reinhold Weicker.
92 *
93 * At several places in the benchmark, code has been added,
94 * but within the measurement loop only in branches that
95 * are not executed. The intention is that optimizing compilers
96 * should be prevented from moving code out of the measurement
97 * loop, or from removing code altogether. Since the statements
98 * that are executed within the measurement loop have NOT been
99 * changed, the numbers defining the "Dhrystone distribution"
100 * (distribution of statements, operand types and locality)
101 * still hold. Except for sophisticated optimizing compilers,
102 * execution times for this version should be the same as
103 * for previous versions.
104 *
105 * Since it has proven difficult to subtract the time for the
106 * measurement loop overhead in a correct way, the loop check
107 * has been made a part of the benchmark. This does have
108 * an impact - though a very minor one - on the distribution
109 * statistics which have been updated for this version.
110 *
111 * All changes within the measurement loop are described
112 * and discussed in the companion paper "Rationale for
113 * Dhrystone version 2".
114 *
115 * Because of the self-imposed limitation that the order and
116 * distribution of the executed statements should not be
117 * changed, there are still cases where optimizing compilers
118 * may not generate code for some statements. To a certain
119 * degree, this is unavoidable for small synthetic benchmarks.
120 * Users of the benchmark are advised to check code listings
121 * whether code is generated for all statements of Dhrystone.
122 *
123 * Version 2.1 is identical to version 2.0 distributed via
124 * the UNIX network Usenet in March 1988 except that it corrects
125 * some minor deficiencies that were found by users of version 2.0.
126 * The only change within the measurement loop is that a
127 * non-executed "else" part was added to the "if" statement in
128 * Func_3, and a non-executed "else" part removed from Proc_3.
129 *
130 ***************************************************************************
131 *
132 * Defines: The following "Defines" are possible:
133 * -DREG=register (default: Not defined)
134 * As an approximation to what an average C programmer
135 * might do, the "register" storage class is applied
136 * (if enabled by -DREG=register)
137 * - for local variables, if they are used (dynamically)
138 * five or more times
139 * - for parameters if they are used (dynamically)
140 * six or more times
141 * Note that an optimal "register" strategy is
142 * compiler-dependent, and that "register" declarations
143 * do not necessarily lead to faster execution.
144 * -DNOSTRUCTASSIGN (default: Not defined)
145 * Define if the C compiler does not support
146 * assignment of structures.
147 * -DNOENUMS (default: Not defined)
148 * Define if the C compiler does not support
149 * enumeration types.
150 * -DTIMES (default)
151 * -DTIME
152 * The "times" function of UNIX (returning process times)
153 * or the "time" function (returning wallclock time)
154 * is used for measurement.
155 * For single user machines, "time ()" is adequate. For
156 * multi-user machines where you cannot get single-user
157 * access, use the "times ()" function. If you have
158 * neither, use a stopwatch in the dead of night.
159 * "printf"s are provided marking the points "Start Timer"
160 * and "Stop Timer". DO NOT use the UNIX "time(1)"
161 * command, as this will measure the total time to
162 * run this program, which will (erroneously) include
163 * the time to allocate storage (malloc) and to perform
164 * the initialization.
165 * -DHZ=nnn
166 * In Berkeley UNIX, the function "times" returns process
167 * time in 1/HZ seconds, with HZ = 60 for most systems.
168 * CHECK YOUR SYSTEM DESCRIPTION BEFORE YOU JUST APPLY
169 * A VALUE.
170 *
171 ***************************************************************************
172 *
173 * Compilation model and measurement (IMPORTANT):
174 *
175 * This C version of Dhrystone consists of three files:
176 * - dhry.h (this file, containing global definitions and comments)
177 * - dhry_1.c (containing the code corresponding to Ada package Pack_1)
178 * - dhry_2.c (containing the code corresponding to Ada package Pack_2)
179 *
180 * The following "ground rules" apply for measurements:
181 * - Separate compilation
182 * - No procedure merging
183 * - Otherwise, compiler optimizations are allowed but should be indicated
184 * - Default results are those without register declarations
185 * See the companion paper "Rationale for Dhrystone Version 2" for a more
186 * detailed discussion of these ground rules.
187 *
188 * For 16-Bit processors (e.g. 80186, 80286), times for all compilation
189 * models ("small", "medium", "large" etc.) should be given if possible,
190 * together with a definition of these models for the compiler system used.
191 *
192 **************************************************************************
193 *
194 * Dhrystone (C version) statistics:
195 *
196 * [Comment from the first distribution, updated for version 2.
197 * Note that because of language differences, the numbers are slightly
198 * different from the Ada version.]
199 *
200 * The following program contains statements of a high level programming
201 * language (here: C) in a distribution considered representative:
202 *
203 * assignments 52 (51.0 %)
204 * control statements 33 (32.4 %)
205 * procedure, function calls 17 (16.7 %)
206 *
207 * 103 statements are dynamically executed. The program is balanced with
208 * respect to the three aspects:
209 *
210 * - statement type
211 * - operand type
212 * - operand locality
213 * operand global, local, parameter, or constant.
214 *
215 * The combination of these three aspects is balanced only approximately.
216 *
217 * 1. Statement Type:
218 * ----------------- number
219 *
220 * V1 = V2 9
221 * (incl. V1 = F(..)
222 * V = Constant 12
223 * Assignment, 7
224 * with array element
225 * Assignment, 6
226 * with record component
227 * --
228 * 34 34
229 *
230 * X = Y +|-|"&&"|"|" Z 5
231 * X = Y +|-|"==" Constant 6
232 * X = X +|- 1 3
233 * X = Y *|/ Z 2
234 * X = Expression, 1
235 * two operators
236 * X = Expression, 1
237 * three operators
238 * --
239 * 18 18
240 *
241 * if .... 14
242 * with "else" 7
243 * without "else" 7
244 * executed 3
245 * not executed 4
246 * for ... 7 | counted every time
247 * while ... 4 | the loop condition
248 * do ... while 1 | is evaluated
249 * switch ... 1
250 * break 1
251 * declaration with 1
252 * initialization
253 * --
254 * 34 34
255 *
256 * P (...) procedure call 11
257 * user procedure 10
258 * library procedure 1
259 * X = F (...)
260 * function call 6
261 * user function 5
262 * library function 1
263 * --
264 * 17 17
265 * ---
266 * 103
267 *
268 * The average number of parameters in procedure or function calls
269 * is 1.82 (not counting the function values aX *
270 *
271 * 2. Operators
272 * ------------
273 * number approximate
274 * percentage
275 *
276 * Arithmetic 32 50.8
277 *
278 * + 21 33.3
279 * - 7 11.1
280 * * 3 4.8
281 * / (int div) 1 1.6
282 *
283 * Comparison 27 42.8
284 *
285 * == 9 14.3
286 * /= 4 6.3
287 * > 1 1.6
288 * < 3 4.8
289 * >= 1 1.6
290 * <= 9 14.3
291 *
292 * Logic 4 6.3
293 *
294 * && (AND-THEN) 1 1.6
295 * | (OR) 1 1.6
296 * ! (NOT) 2 3.2
297 *
298 * -- -----
299 * 63 100.1
300 *
301 *
302 * 3. Operand Type (counted once per operand reference):
303 * ---------------
304 * number approximate
305 * percentage
306 *
307 * Integer 175 72.3 %
308 * Character 45 18.6 %
309 * Pointer 12 5.0 %
310 * String30 6 2.5 %
311 * Array 2 0.8 %
312 * Record 2 0.8 %
313 * --- -------
314 * 242 100.0 %
315 *
316 * When there is an access path leading to the final operand (e.g. a record
317 * component), only the final data type on the access path is counted.
318 *
319 *
320 * 4. Operand Locality:
321 * -------------------
322 * number approximate
323 * percentage
324 *
325 * local variable 114 47.1 %
326 * global variable 22 9.1 %
327 * parameter 45 18.6 %
328 * value 23 9.5 %
329 * reference 22 9.1 %
330 * function result 6 2.5 %
331 * constant 55 22.7 %
332 * --- -------
333 * 242 100.0 %
334 *
335 *
336 * The program does not compute anything meaningful, but it is syntactically
337 * and semantically correct. All variables have a value assigned to them
338 * before they are used as a source operand.
339 *
340 * There has been no explicit effort to account for the effects of a
341 * cache, or to balance the use of long or short displacements for code or
342 * data.
343 *
344 ***************************************************************************
345 */
346
347#ifndef dhrystone_h
348#define dhrystone_h
349
350/* Compiler and system dependent definitions: */
351
352#ifndef TIME
353#undef TIMES
354#define TIMES
355#endif
356 /* Use times(2) time function unless */
357 /* explicitly defined otherwise */
358
359//#ifdef MSC_CLOCK
360//#undef HZ
361//#undef TIMES
362//#include <time.h>
363//#define HZ CLK_TCK
364//#endif
365// /* Use Microsoft C hi-res clock */
366
367#define HZ SYSINFO_CLK
368
369#ifdef TIMES
370#include <sys/types.h>
371#include <sys/times.h>
372 /* for "times" */
373#endif
374
375#define Mic_secs_Per_Second 1000000
376 /* Berkeley UNIX C returns process times in seconds/HZ */
377
378#ifdef NOSTRUCTASSIGN
379#define structassign(d, s) memcpy(&(d), &(s), sizeof(d))
380#else
381#define structassign(d, s) d = s
382#endif
383
384#ifdef NOENUM
385#define Ident_1 0
386#define Ident_2 1
387#define Ident_3 2
388#define Ident_4 3
389#define Ident_5 4
390 typedef int Enumeration;
391#else
392 typedef enum {Ident_1, Ident_2, Ident_3, Ident_4, Ident_5}
393 Enumeration;
394#endif
395 /* for boolean and enumeration types in Ada, Pascal */
396
397/* General definitions: */
398
399#include <stdio.h>
400 /* for strcpy, strcmp */
401
402#define Null 0
403 /* Value of a Null pointer */
404#define true 1
405#define false 0
406
407typedef int One_Thirty;
408typedef int One_Fifty;
409typedef char Capital_Letter;
410typedef int Boolean;
411typedef char Str_30 [31];
412typedef int Arr_1_Dim [50];
413typedef int Arr_2_Dim [50] [50];
414
415typedef struct record
416 {
417 struct record *Ptr_Comp;
418 Enumeration Discr;
419 union {
420 struct {
421 Enumeration Enum_Comp;
422 int Int_Comp;
423 char Str_Comp [31];
424 } var_1;
425 struct {
426 Enumeration E_Comp_2;
427 char Str_2_Comp [31];
428 } var_2;
429 struct {
430 char Ch_1_Comp;
431 char Ch_2_Comp;
432 } var_3;
433 } variant;
435
436
437// function prototypes
438Enumeration Func_1 (Ch_1_Par_Val, Ch_2_Par_Val);
439Boolean Func_2 (Str_1_Par_Ref, Str_2_Par_Ref);
440Boolean Func_3 (Enum_Par_Val);
441void Proc_1 (Ptr_Val_Par);
442void Proc_2 (Int_Par_Ref);
443void Proc_3 (Ptr_Ref_Par);
444void Proc_4 (void);
445void Proc_5 (void);
446void Proc_6 (Enum_Val_Par, Enum_Ref_Par);
447void Proc_7 (Int_1_Par_Val, Int_2_Par_Val, Int_Par_Ref);
448void Proc_8 (Arr_1_Par_Ref, Arr_2_Par_Ref, Int_1_Par_Val, Int_2_Par_Val);
449int strcmp(const char *p1, const char *p2);
450
451#endif // dhrystone_h
Definition: dhry.h:416